Read and/or download the set of Astronomy & Astrophysics papers to be published in a forthcoming Special Issue.
PRESENTED IMAGES AT THE XMM-Newton PRESS CONFERENCE
(Click on an image to get it in full size)
Fig. 1 - Clusters of galaxies
Densely concentrated clusters of
galaxies tend to have giant galaxies at their center and they are held together
by their own gravity. Such clusters are filled with X-ray emitting gas at
temperatures reaching temperatures of 10 million degrees. The key tool used to
understand the physics of this gas and its role in the structure and evolution
of the cluster is X-ray spectroscopy. XMM-Newton targets have included a number
of galaxy clusters, including Abell S 1101(=Sérsic 159-03), Abell 1835
and Abell 1795.
Top left: X-ray image for Abell S 1101(=Sérsic 159-03)
obtained by XMM-Newton's European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC-MOS).
Analysis has shown a sharp temperature drop near the outer part of the cluster,
which might be associated with the transition from cluster to supercluster.
Courtesy J. Kaastra, SRON, Utrecht, NL.
Middle right: Past studies have implied the presence of cool
gas near the centers of clusters of galaxies. This, and other, characteristics
have been studied in the Abell 1835 cluster of galaxies using the EPIC and RGS
instruments on XMM-Newton. Observations have allowed the measurement of both the
relative X-ray emission of the cold gas and a detailed study of the spectral
properties of total gas distribution. The traditional model for cooling flows
is not compatible with these observations, and new models will have to be
sought. Courtesy J. Peterson, Columbia Univ., NY, USA.
Bottom left: XMM-Newton has observed
the Abell 1795 cluster, one of the best targets for XMM-Newton to study the
center of a cluster of galaxies. Its large-scale properties were measured with
the EPIC spatially-resolved spectra and the high resolution Reflection
Grating Spectrometers (RGS) were used to constrain the temperature
structure of the cluster core. Courtesy T. Tamura, SRON, Utrecht, NL.
Shown are the EPIC-MOS X-ray
contours of the Sérsic 159-03 cluster of galaxies, superimposed on
an optical (Digitised Sky Survey) view of the corresponding region.
The contours map the X-ray intensity distribution of the intra-cluster gas
and the bottom graph illustrates the radial temperature profile of
this X-ray emitting material. Courtesy J. Kaastra, SRON, Utrecht, NL.
Spectra extracted from the central
regions of the rich galaxy clusters Abell S 1101(=Sérsic 159-03),
Abell 1795 and Abell 1835 obtained with XMM-Newton's Reflection Grating
Spectrometers (RGS). Courtesy T. Tamura, SRON, Utrecht, NL and J. Peterson,
Columbia Univ. , NY, USA.
The luminous infrared-loud quasar
IRAS 13349+2438, at a redshift of 0.10764, is a source extensively studied in
the optical, infrared and X-ray bands. The spectrum obtained with XMM-Newton's
Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) shows the presence of a wide range of
elements at different levels of ionisation. The most prominent features are
the absorption lines of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon and iron. These data,
which are extremely rich in detail, can be used for highly precise studies of
the warm absorber material thought to be present in our line of sight around
the giant black holes in the center of such systems. The best-fit model
spectrum is superimposed in red. Courtesy of M. Sako, Columbia Univ., NY, USA.
One of the brightest soft X-ray
sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud is the supernova remnant N132D.
Observations with XMM-Newton's Reflection Grating Spectrometers (RGS),
complemented by images taken by the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC)
have provided highly resolved X-ray spectra of this extended supernova remnant.
In the narrow wavelength bands indicated, each EPIC-MOS image maps the
distribution of nine different elements. Differences between more and
less ionised regions can be noted. Oxygen rich gas is present in an area
to the northeastern part of the remnant, where no other
elements are emitting X-rays. This may either be relatively cold gas, or
is the result of the supernova shockwave interacting with oxygen-rich stellar
winds before the stellar explosion. Image courtesy of E. Behar, Columbia Univ., NY, USA.
The Coma Cluster, an aggregate
thousands of galaxies. The picture is a mosaic of 12 partially overlapping
pointings obtained with the EPIC-pn camera. The cluster was chosen during
XMM-Newton's performance verification phase to prove the observatory's
ability to map and analyse data from large extended X-ray sources.
Bottom, a close-up view of the temperature structure in
the inner region of the Coma Cluster of galaxies, highlighting the X-ray
hardness and corresponding temperatures around the giant elliptical galaxies
NGC 4889 and NGC 4874 and the gas in the central part of the cluster.
Courtesy U. Briel, Max-Planck Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany.
XMM-Newton has provided detailed
spectral analysis of the nucleus and jets of the giant elliptical galaxy M87.
Observation of this relatively close bright X-ray and radio source situated
at the center of the Virgo cluster of galaxies has allowed the first detailed
study of the interactions between the thermal and radio emitting plasma in
its central region.
Top left, EPIC-pn image of M87 in the energy range 0.5-2 keV.
The galaxy's X-ray halo has an almost spherically symmetrical appearance, with
the exception of two localised enhancements to the SW and E of the nucleus.
Image courtesy of H. Böhringer, Max-Planck Institut für extraterrestrische
Physik, Garching, Germany.
Top right, a combined view by both EPIC MOS cameras shows the
asymmetric extended X-ray arms of M87. The galaxy's X-ray halo has been
subtracted. Image courtesy of E. Belsole, Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, France.<
Bottom, X-ray mean energy level map of M87 provided by the
EPIC MOS camera superimposed on a radio map of the galaxy. Image courtesy of
E. Belsole, Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, France.
Combining the images from all
EPIC cameras, the Lockman Hole provides the deepest ever X-ray survey of this
region where observation of the early Universe is facilitated by the relative
absence of intervening, absorbing material. The view gives a "real colour"
representation of all the sources, coded according to their X-ray hardness.
More than 60 new sources are detected in the 5-10 keV band alone. Image
courtesy of G. Hasinger, Astrophysikalisches Institute, Potsdam, Germany.